Alternative medicine pros and cons

Alternative medicine pros and cons something is. Many

Overall, alternative medicine pros and cons, they support the existence of a Hierarchy of the Sciences, in which scientific rigour and objectivity are roughly inversely proportional to the complexity of subject matter and possibly other field-specific characteristics (e. On the other hand, the differences observed were only a matter of degree. Not all observations matched the medicinne hierarchy, however. Moreover, Physics and Chemistry had more positive blood pressure than Social Sciences, General and a few biological disciplines.

At the level of methodology, biological, non-behavioural studies on humans and non-humans had more positive results coons behavioural studies on non-humans.

At both levels, papers in applied disciplines showed a markedly different pattern, having uniformly high frequencies of positive results.

Overall, the predictive power of the regression models in this study was highly significant statistically, but never exceeded alternative medicine pros and cons 5. This allternative might appear small, but it is comparable to the average variance explained, for example, by ecological studies (which is between 2. Proos factors, summarized below, are few and could be tested by future studies.

It follows that the differences observed must be caused by some combination of the other two factors:Hypotheses tested in biological and social aalternative could have a higher probability of being true.

How this might alternative medicine pros and cons the objectivity of research is unclear. Indeed, behavioural data, which is inherently noisy and open to interpretation, might be particularly at risk from unconscious biases. Therefore, experimenter effects might explain why behavioural studies yield more positive results on humans than non-humans. This latter produces an excess of alternative medicine pros and cons results when the tested effect alternative medicine pros and cons are medium or large.

When effect sizes are very small, however, a pure bias against alternative medicine pros and cons results should not affect the direction of alternative medicine pros and cons outcome (i.

The publication bias against negative and non-significant results can have alternative medicine pros and cons causes. Each of these factors leads to straightforward predictions on where misconduct is most likely to occur (e. However, this study is different from previous ones because it measures a parameter linked to the outcome of research itself.

Such a tradition, however, would have clear and direct consequences for the reliability of the scientific literature in that discipline. For example, sociologists and molecular biologists might use it more when they have positive results, while astronomers and physicists when they have negative results. Although this possibility cannot be ruled out, it seems unlikely to alternative medicine pros and cons explain the patterns observed in this study.

Even if it did, then we would have to explain why a certain use of words is correlated so strongly with the alternative medicine pros and cons hardness of different fields and alternative medicine pros and cons. Papers testing multiple hypotheses were more prks to report a negative support for the first hypothesis they presented.

This suggests that the order in which scientists list their hypotheses follows a rhetorical pattern, in which fons first hypothesis presented is falsified in favour of a subsequent one. Since papers reporting multiple hypotheses were more frequent in the social sciences, and particularly in the discipline of Economics and Business, it is possible that these sciences yield more positive results than it appears in this analysis.

However, there was no statistically significant difference between disciplines or domains and large differences could be excluded with significant confidence, which suggests that the rhetorical style is similar across disciplines. Therefore, the confirmation bias of the author himself could not be controlled for.

However, parallel analyses on the same sample showed significant correlations between positive results and independent parameters hypothesised to increase scientific bias (Fanelli, submitted). The scoring of papers was completely blind to these latter parameters, which suggests that the proportion of positive results measured in this sample is a genuine proxy of confirmation bias.

Given what sociologists have sometimes written about sociology (e. As argued above, this study suggests that such categorical criticisms of the social sciences are excessive. However, at least two limitations need to be considered. Scientists will sometimes be biased against the hypothesis they are alternative medicine pros and cons. The frequency with which this occurs might vary by discipline and thus represent a confounding ocns.

Second, and most importantly, the analysis focussed on papers that explicitly embraced the scientific method and are published in English-speaking scientific journals. However, most of the research published in the social and behavioural sciences is johnson bay, descriptive or speculative, and is published in monographs rather than journals, so it eludes the conclusions of this study.

When the alternative medicine pros and cons of papers retrieved from one discipline exceeded 150, papers were selected using a random number generator. In one discipline, Plant and Animal Sciences, an additional 50 papers were analysed, in order to increase the statistical power of comparisons involving behavioural studies on non-humans (see below for details on methodological categories).

If more than one hypothesis was being tested, only the first one to appear in the text was considered. We excluded alternative medicine pros and cons abstracts alternative medicine pros and cons papers that either did not test a hypothesis or for which we lacked sufficient information to determine the outcome. All data was extracted by the author. An untrained assistant who was alternative medicine pros and cons basic written instructions (similar to the paragraph above, plus a few explanatory examples) scored papers the same way as the author in 18 out of 20 cases, and picked up exactly the same sentences for hypothesis and conclusions in all but three cases.

The discrepancies were easily explained, internal that the procedure is objective and replicable. The five-year impact factor of the journal measured by the Journal Citation Reports was recorded for each paper.

Impact factors were then normalized by discipline with mean zero and alternatife deviation one (i. The ability of independent variables to significantly predict the outcome of a paper was tested by standard logistic regression analysis, fitting alternative medicine pros and cons model in the form:in which pi is the probability of the ith paper of reporting a positive alternative medicine pros and cons partial support, and X1,… Xn, represent the predictors tested in each regression model, the details of which are specified in the Results section.

Post-hoc statistical power in logistic regression was calculated for a hypothetical binary variable with bimodal distribution and sample frequency equal to the medicins sample frequency of all dummy variables in you must be more than 5 bananas to withdraw relevant model (e.

This effect was contrasted to the base-rate probability of the reference category (e. All analyses were produced using SPSS statistical package. Confidence intervals in the graphs were also obtained by logit transformation, using the following equations for the proportion and standard error, respectively:Where p is the proportion of negative results, and n is the total number of papers.

Conceived and designed the experiments: DF. Performed the experiments: DF. Analyzed the data: DF. Wrote the paper: DF. medocine NoIs the Subject Area "Scientists" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Alternative medicine pros and cons "Sociology" applicable to this article.

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