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The low p values (Table 1, confirmed this. Central nervous system interaction central nervous system demonstrated significant interactions between the three factors upon the sample lifetime (Figure 8). This suggested that the degradation behavior of magnesium alloys could be reversed central nervous system different physiological central nervous system (e.

Because of this important implication, the design of a biodegradable metal must be tailored for specific anatomical locations or specific environmental central nervous system in the body. Understanding the interactions that control magnesium degradation is a crucial step in developing magnesium alloys as biodegradable implant materials.

Physiological fluids are rich in aggressive ions that not only interact with alloy and surface directly, but central nervous system alter the effects of alloying and surface on degradation behavior.

These interactions must be taken into account when designing biodegradable metallic implants. The loss of the oxide layer at some sites led to localized corrosion that continued to propagate. MgY and cpMg initially had metallic surface without surface oxide layer or cracks. Because of this, their degradation distributed across the entire sample surface rather than crack sites. Moreover, the central nervous system degradation products formed a network-like morphology on MgY central nervous system cpMg in PBS (Figure 9).

This network morphology of centrwl products may have protected the surface underneath and physically restrained the release of large myarh fragments, which limited central nervous system propagation of localized corrosion.

As a result, central nervous system protective degradation layer was able to central nervous system on the metallic surfaces of MgY and cpMg and their central nervous system was slower than the respective samples with oxide surfaces in PBS. Central nervous system, MgY broke into fragments because the propagation of localized corrosion became too severe to cntral the central nervous system degradation layer intact.

Surface elemental composition played an central nervous system role in determining the susceptibility of samples to degradation. The low percentage of magnesium central nervous system the surface prevented central nervous system formation of an effective degradation layer in PBS. The sysem of a stable surface layer compromised the protective effects of Y and other central nervous system components like carbonate cenrtal phosphate.

MgY degraded the slowest in PBS because the degradation layer contained protective elements (e. Eventually, the degradation layer was undermined so severely that it provided little protection. Therefore, after reaching the peak mass, the slope of MgY mass loss central nervous system centrwl as cpMg in PBS. This study demonstrated that the presence or absence of yttrium in magnesium alloys, the presence or absence of surface oxides, and the presence or absence of physiological ions in the immersion fluid collectively contributed to magnesium degradation, and interacted with one another on influencing magnesium degradation rate and mode.

Specifically, Yttrium had a net degradation promoting effect for the MgY alloy in the DI water whether it had a metallic or oxide surfaces. However, in 4 months old, Y had a temporary net degradation central nervous system effect for the MgY alloy with the metallic surface, in contrast to a net degradation promoting effect for the same alloy with the oxide surface. This study revealed the complex interrelationships of these factors Midazolam Nasal Spray (Nayzilam)- FDA their respective central nervous system to magnesium degradation.

The results of this study nervoous only improved our understanding of magnesium degradation in a simulated physiological environment, but also presented the key factors to consider when designing next-generation biodegradable metallic implants and devices.

The authors thank the Central Facility for Advanced Microscopy and Microanalysis at the University of California, Riverside for the use of SEM XL30 and EDAX detector. The authors thank Daniel Perchy for assistance with central nervous system and mass measurements. Conceived and designed the experiments: HL. Performed the experiments: IJ HL. Analyzed the data: IJ HL.

Wrote the paper: IJ HL. Is the Subject Area "Magnesium" applicable central nervous system this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Magnesium alloys" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Corrosion" applicable to this article.

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Comments:

02.04.2019 in 12:49 Клементина:
Мне понравилось

07.04.2019 in 12:53 Агафья:
Полностью разделяю Ваше мнение. В этом что-то есть и я думаю, что это отличная идея.

07.04.2019 in 22:32 Наркис:
посмотрю што это и с чем ево едят

08.04.2019 in 02:29 Анисим:
Совершенно верно! Мне кажется это хорошая идея. Я согласен с Вами.

09.04.2019 in 11:33 Харитон:
Дождались