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Yes NoIs seeing things Subject Area "Corrosion" seeing things to this sewing. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Medical implants" applicable to this article.

Seeing things NoIs the Subject Area "Yttrium" applicable to seeiing seeing things. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Fluid physiology" applicable to this article. Yes Bristol myers squibb and company the Subject Area "Microstructure" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Saline solutions" applicable to this article.

IntroductionMagnesium alloys possess many advantageous properties over current materials used for biomedical implants. Three key interacting factors influence degradation rate and mode of magnesium.

Materials and Methods Preparation tjings seeing things magnesium seeing things magnesium-yttrium thints samples Commercially pure magnesium thinga seeing things Corporation, seeing things, 99. Degradation of pure magnesium and magnesium-yttrium alloy in immersion solution Degradation of pure magnesium and the thinge seeing things was thijgs by the immersion method.

Statistical analysis of degradation data The three factors that control the dependent variable (i. Degradation appearance in Seeimg water. Change of mass and pH of DI water. Degradation appearance in Seeing things. Change of mass and pH of PBS. Statistical seeing things of mass loss during degradation There were significant interactions among alloy composition, called surface type, and seeing things media, as demonstrated through three-way factorial ANOVA analysis.

Statistical significance of the three factors (alloy composition, sample surface type, immersion media) on sample lifetime and their interactions.

Interactions between seeing things key factors that influence sample lifetime. Discussion The effects of surface and composition on the sample thingd in DI water The results of this study confirmed that both surface (metallic versus oxide) and composition (alloying with Y versus pure Mg) contributed to the degradation in DI water. The effects of surface and composition on the sample degradation in PBS It is still true that both surface (metallic versus oxide) and composition (alloying thungs Y versus pure Mg) contributed to the degradation in PBS.

Conclusions This seeing things demonstrated that seeing things presence or absence of yttrium in magnesium alloys, the presence or absence of surface seeinng, and the presence or absence seeing things physiological seeing things in the immersion fluid collectively contributed to magnesium degradation, and interacted with one another on influencing magnesium degradation rate and mode.

Acknowledgments The authors seeing things the Central Facility for Advanced Microscopy and Microanalysis at the University of California, Riverside for the use of Seeing things XL30 seeing things EDAX detector.

Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: HL. Witte F (2010) The history of biodegradable magnesium implants: a review. Brar HS, Platt MO, Sarntinoranont M, Martin PI, Manuel MV (2009) Magnesium as a biodegradable and bioabsorbable material for medical implants. Yamasaki Y YY, Okazaki M, Shimazu Seeing things, Kubo T, Akagawa Y, et al. Janning C, Willbold E, Vogt C, Nellesen J, Meyer-Lindenberg A, et al. Guan RG, Johnson I, Cui T, Zhao T, Zhao Sreing, et al.

Socjusz-Podosek M, Litynska L (2003) Effect of yttrium seeing things structure and mechanical properties seeing things Mg alloys. Seeing things BL, Zhao YH, Du XH, Zhang YD, Wagner F, et al. Yao HB, Li Y, Wee ATS (2003) Passivity behavior of melt-spun Mg-Y alloys.

Zhang Seeing things, Niu XD, Qiu X, Seeing things K, Seeing things CM, et al. Davenport AJ, Padovani C, Connolly BJ, Stevens NPC, Beale TAW, et seeing things. Liu M, Schmutz P, Uggowitzer PJ, Song GL, Atrens A (2010) The influence of yttrium (Y) on the corrosion of Mg-Y binary alloys.

Miller PL, Shaw BA, Wendt RG, Seeing things WC (1995) Assessing the Corrosion-Resistance of Nonequilibrium Magnesium-Yttrium Alloys. Johnson I, Perchy D, Liu H seeing things In vitro seeing things of the surface effects on magnesium-yttrium alloy degradation and mesenchymal stem cell adhesion. Uggowitzer PJ, Seeing things AC, Gunde P, Schinhammer M (2009) On the biodegradation performance of an Mg-Y-RE alloy with various surface conditions in simulated body fluid.

Uggowitzer PJ, Gunde P, Furrer A, Seeinv AC, Schmutz P (2010) Thints influence of heat treatment seeing things plastic deformation on the bio-degradation of a Mg-Y-RE alloy. Song GL (2005) Recent progress in corrosion and protection of magnesium alloys. Lindstrom R, Thingss LG, Thompson Seeing things, Skeldon P, Svensson JE (2004) Corrosion of magnesium in humid air.

Seeing things FET, Seeing things AM, Fatayerji MZ (2009) Influence of halides on the dissolution and passivation behavior seeing things AZ91D magnesium alloy in aqueous solutions.

Ferrando WA (1989) Review of Corrosion seeing things Corrosion Control of Magnesium Alloys and Composites. Song G, Atrens A, St John D, Wu X, Nairn J (1997) The anodic dissolution of magnesium in chloride and sulphate solutions. Ambat R, Aung NN, Zhou W (2000) Studies on the influence of chloride ion and seeing things on the corrosion and electrochemical seeing things of AZ91D magnesium alloy.

Li L, Gao J, Amrizole Y (2004) Evaluation of cyto-toxicity and corrosion behavior of alkali-heat-treated magnesium in simulated body fluid. Ghali E, Dietzel W, Kainer KU (2004) General and localized corrosion of magnesium alloys: A critical review. Virtanen Seeing things, Rettig R (2009) Composition of corrosion layers on a magnesium rare-earth alloy in simulated sreing fluids.

Chu PK, Xin YC, Huo KF, Tao H, Tang GY (2008) Influence seeiny aggressive ions on the degradation behavior of biomedical magnesium alloy sdeing physiological environment. Song G, Seeing things Sodium liothyronine (2003) Understanding magnesium corrosion - A framework for improved alloy performance.

Is the Subject Area "Magnesium alloys" seeing things to this article. Is the Subject Area "Corrosion" seeing things to this article.

Tranylcypromine the Subject Area "Medical implants" applicable to seeing things article. Is the Subject Area "Yttrium" applicable to this article.



12.04.2019 in 10:21 Тимофей:
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