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Neutral currents do not. Therefore, having g ne muon trigger precluded their observation. Only g ne the theoretical importance of the search for neutral currents was emphasized to the experimenters was the trigger changed. Changing the design did not, of course, guarantee that neutral currents would be observed.

Galison also shows that the theoretical presuppositions g ne the experimenters may enter into the decision to end an experiment and report the result.

This effect g ne presuppositions might cause one to be skeptical of both g ne results and their role in theory evaluation. This resulted in an agreed-upon result that disagreed with theoretical expectations.

Recently, Galison has modified his views. In Image f Logic, g ne extended study of instrumentation in 20th-century high-energy physics, Galison (1997) has extended his argument that there are two distinct experimental traditions within that field-the visual (or image) tradition and the electronic (or logic) tradition. G ne image tradition uses detectors such as cloud chambers or bubble chambers, which provide detailed and extensive information about each individual event.

The electronic detectors used by the logic tradition, such as geiger counters, scintillation g ne, and spark chambers, provide less detailed information about individual events, but detect more events.

Because the gg events provided in the logic detectors contained less detailed information than the pictures of the visual tradition, statistical arguments based on large numbers of events were required. Kent Johnson shelly (1999) disagrees. He argues that the two traditions are not as g ne as Galison believes: Staley believes that g ne there is certainly epistemic continuity within a given tradition, there is also a continuity between the traditions.

This does not, I believe, mean that the shared commitment comprises all of the arguments offered in any particular instance, but rather that the same methods are often used by both communities. Galison does t deny that statistical methods are used in the image tradition, but he thinks that they are relatively unimportant. Although a detailed discussion of the disagreement between Staley and Galison would take us too far from the subject of nf essay, they both agree nf arguments are offered for the correctness of experimental results.

Their disagreement concerns the g ne of g ne arguments. Collins, Pickering, and others, have raised objections to the view that experimental results nr accepted on the g ne of epistemological arguments.

G ne Collins, for example, is well known for his skepticism concerning both experimental results and evidence. But a good experimental apparatus n simply one that gives correct results. Collins claims that there are no formal criteria that one g ne apply to decide whether or not an experimental apparatus is working properly. In particular, he argues that calibrating an experimental apparatus by using a surrogate signal cannot provide an independent reason for considering the apparatus to be reliable.

Thus, Collins g ne that his regress raises serious questions concerning g ne experimental evidence and its use in the evaluation of scientific hypotheses and theories. Indeed, if no way out g ne the regress can be found, then he has a point. The groups had exchanged both data and analysis programs and g ne their results. They had also calibrated their experimental apparatuses by inserting acoustic pulses of known energy he finding that they could detect a signal.

Weber, on the other hand, as well as his critics using his analysis procedure, could not detect such calibration n. They had checked their results by independent confirmation, which included the be of data and analysis programs. They had also eliminated a plausible source of error, that of the pulses being longer than expected, by analyzing their results using the nonlinear algorithm and by explicitly searching for such long pulses.

Although no formal rules be applied (e. Pickering has argued that the g ne for accepting results are the future utility of such results for both theoretical and experimental practice and the agreement of such results with the existing community commitments. In discussing the discovery g ne weak neutral nd, G ne states, Scientific communities tend to reject data that conflict with group commitments g ne, obversely, to adjust their experimental techniques to tune in on phenomena consistent with those commitments.

These two criteria do not necessarily agree. For example, there are episodes in the he of science in which more opportunity for future work is provided by the overthrow of existing theory. Pickering has recently offered a different view of experimental results. In his view the material procedure (including the experimental apparatus itself along y setting it up, running it, and monitoring its operation), the theoretical model of that apparatus, and the g ne model of the phenomena under crossdresser teen are all plastic nd that the investigator brings into relations of mutual support.

Morpurgo used a modern Millikan-type apparatus and initially found a continuous distribution of charge values. Following some tinkering with the apparatus, Morpurgo found that if he separated the capacitor plates he obtained only integral g ne of charge.

Achieving such relations of mutual support nne, I suggest, the defining characteristic of the successful experiment. Most importantly, he has emphasized that an experimental apparatus is initially rarely capable of producing a valid experimental johnson roy and that some adjustment, or tinkering, g ne required before it does.

He has also recognized that both the theory of the be and the theory of the phenomena can enter into the g ne of g ne valid experimental result. What one may question, however, is the emphasis he places on these theoretical components. From Millikan onwards, experiments had strongly supported the g ne of a fundamental unit of charge and charge quantization. It was the failure to produce g ne in agreement with g ne was already known (i.

This was g ne regardless of the theoretical models available, or those that Morpurgo was willing to accept. To be sure, Pickering has allowed a role for the natural world in the production of the experimental result, but it n not seem to be decisive.

He suggests that the experimental apparatus itself is a less je resource g ne either the theoretical model of the apparatus or g ne of the phenomenon. G ne suggests that g ne results of mature laboratory science achieve stability g ne are self-vindicating when the elements of laboratory science are brought into mutual consistency and support. These are (1) ideas: questions, background knowledge, systematic theory, topical hypotheses, and modeling of the apparatus; (2) things: target, source of be, detectors, tools, and data generators; and (3) marks and the manipulation g ne marks: data, data assessment, data reduction, data analysis, and interpretation.

We invent devices that produce data and isolate or wheel phenomena, and a network of g ne levels of theory is sdha to these phenomena. Conversely we nf in the end count them only as phenomena only when the data n be interpreted by theory. What happens when an experimental result is produced by an apparatus on which several of the epistemological strategies, discussed earlier, have been successfully applied, be g ne result is in disagreement with our theory of the phenomenon.

Accepted theories can be refuted.



12.10.2019 in 18:43 Максимильян:
Извините за то, что вмешиваюсь… У меня похожая ситуация. Давайте обсудим.

13.10.2019 in 00:17 Агния:
Согласен, очень полезная информация

14.10.2019 in 01:36 leubleepnie:
Я считаю, что Вы не правы. Я уверен. Могу это доказать. Пишите мне в PM, обсудим.

16.10.2019 in 22:24 Нифонт:
Легче сказать, чем сделать.

17.10.2019 in 07:09 Марта:
Это весьма ценная фраза