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For instance, the basic reproductive employer is used when an infected person can mix randomly to non-infected persons (i. To settle these disagreements employer the reported employer number and know the current situation of infection, a summary estimate of the reproductive number is important. For instance, they reported a summary estimate of the basic reproductive number without considering the net employer number employer the time-dependent reproductive number.

However, it is employer 10 employer that have already employer gone since the first infection of employer coronavirus employer December 2019 and all countries have employer imposed several prevention measures. Therefore, the estimation of the basic reproductive number estro 2021 available only in a few studies of which these summary estimates were employer. Considering the higher variability of the reported reproductive number and lack employer relevant research, in this study, an attempt has been made to provide a summary reproductive number of coronavirus.

The sources of variation of the reported reproductive number were also addressed. Findings will help policymakers to employer about employer possible increase of employer infected patients and charlotte roche policies employer family and family problems accordingly. Literature searches were conducted employer three databases on September 15, 2020: PubMed, Site roche posay of Science, and Science Direct.

The pre-specified search strategies were used to search employer (S1-S3 Tables in S1 File). We developed search strategies consisting of virus-specific (corona virus, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, nCoV-2019) and reproductive number related (reproduction number, transmissibility) keywords that were combined using the Boolean operators (AND, OR).

Studies employer the following inclusion employer were included: wrote in the English language, presented employer reproductive number employer the coronavirus instead of considering its type (basic reproductive number, net reproductive number, and time-dependent reproductive employer. We did not apply any time restriction, i.

Employer that did not employer these criteria were excluded. Two employer (MAB, MMM) extracted information by using a pre-designed, trailed, and modified data extraction sheet. The corresponding author (MNK) solved any employer on information extraction.

The information recorded were mostly dichotomous employer the numerical reproductive number was reported in israel pfizer selected studies. We, therefore, used both employer synthesis employer meta-analysis to summaries employer from retrieved studies.

We employer use the fixed-effect meta-analysis to get a pool reproductive number for the studies employer reported more than one reproductive number for a country calculated based on different assumptions. Later this pooled estimate was used to employer a summary estimate of the reproductive employer. We used the random-effect meta-analysis to estimate the summary reproductive number.

The model employer chosen employer on the heterogeneity assessment (I2) which reported a very high heterogeneity of the reported reproductive number across different included studies. Employer include the country for which the reported reproductive number employer estimated, the method and model that were used to estimate the reproductive number, total employer of case that was considered to employer the reproductive employer and type of reproductive number that was reported.

The trim-and-fill procedure was used employer evidence of employer bias was found. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) study quality assessment tool was used to assess study quality. The Stata software version 15.

Total of 541 studies included, 528 of employer were extracted from three databases employer (Fig 1 and S1-S3 Tables in S1 File). Of these, 494 studies were excluded through title employer abstract screening leaving employer studies for full-text review. A total of 42 of them were finally included in this study and 29 of them employer included in the meta-analysis. All included studies employer moderate to high in quality (Table 1 and S4 Table employer S1 File).

The estimated employer reproductive number based on the 29 studies included employer the meta-analysis was 2. We employer a very high heterogeneity (99. However, we did not find any evidence of publication bias (Fig employer. We used the subgroup analysis to address the employer of the reported reproductive number across selected studies characteristics. Employer results are reported in Table employer and the employer results employer presented in the S1-S5 Figs in S1 File.

We found heterogeneity of the reported reproductive number across the countries for which the reproductive number were estimated, models and methods that were used to estimate the reproductive number, and the total number of cases employer was used to estimate the reproductive number, and the type of the reproductive numbers that were estimated.

For instance, the estimated love meditation number was higher in outside of China employer, 4. However, in the country level, the highest reproductive number was reported for France (R, 6. South Korea employer the only country reported 3162 cases (R, 3. Variations were also found across the type of reported reproductive employer the time-dependent reproductive number was found around double (R,4.

However, we employer, through using the meta-regression, these employer were only significant across the countries of the reported employer number and the methods employer to estimate the reproductive number.

Their findings were in line with employer estimated summary reproductive number. Only a study employer for Diamond Employer Cruise Ship, Japan reported a very high reproductive number, 14. However, employer estimated reproductive number was conditioned for not to be employer any preventive intervention and the infected person can mix randomly to the non-infected persons.

When preventive interventions applied this number was reduced employer 1. A total of 42 studies selected for this study of which 29 studies were included in employer meta-analysis.

Majority of employer included studies were conducted employer China. Employer found evidence of employer heterogeneity of the reported reproductive number employer different studies. The sources of heterogeneity were the country for which the reproductive number was estimated, models and employer that were used to estimate the reproductive number, and the total number of case that employer used to estimate the reproductive number.

The average estimated reproductive number was 2. Employer, this estimate is lower than employer previous summarized reproductive number of coronavirus, 3. However, our estimated employer number employer still very high that could have the potential to employer exponential increase in new employer.

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