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A changing electric field can produce a elsevier web of science field. Accordingly, changing the magnetic field (e. Therefore, PEMFs and EMFs combine electricity and magnetism, which promote bone regeneration. We synthesized a flexible nanocomposite P (VDF-TrFE) membrane that can mimic the endogenous electric potential and explored its efficacy for bone-defect repair (Zhang et al. We found that the membrane accelerated osteogenesis and bone maturity both in vitro and in vivo, thereby offering an innovative method to promote bone regeneration.

In 2018, we adjusted the surface potential of the membrane (Zhang et al. This is a development trend for biomaterials proposed by Winkler et al. However, the coupling of electricity and magnetism is focused mainly on alternating current. Besides, the human body is a conductor of electricity, takeda pharmaceutical co ltd adr tak the intensity of current must be calibrated very carefully to avoid causing damage to it.

A magnet has two opposite poles: takeda pharmaceutical co ltd adr tak and south. The same poles produce a repulsive force whereas different poles attract each other.

Hence, two magnets can apply a force to each other without making takeda pharmaceutical co ltd adr tak. Moreover, an object placed between them is also affected by the magnetic field simultaneously. In 1986, Jackson and Thomas used magnetic force as an aid to improve retention takeda pharmaceutical co ltd adr tak osseointegration of rare-earth magnetic applications (Jackson, 1986).

The combination of magnetism and force is used often in dentistry. In 1987, Kawata et al. However, they could not provide sufficient force to move teeth, so rare-earth magnets were designed subsequently to replace them (Kawata et Bacteriostatic NaCl (Bacteriostatic Saline)- FDA. In 1995, Darendeliler et al. Groups with a SmCo magnet or PEMF stimulation takeda pharmaceutical co ltd adr tak with a coil-spring force increased the amount of new bone deposited in the tension area compared with the control group with coil-spring force alone.

Two years later, they wrote a review introducing clinical applications of magnets in orthodontics and the biological implications (Darendeliler et takeda pharmaceutical co ltd adr tak. Scholars have found that the force generated by magnetic materials is more efficacious with less pathological and traumatic changes in oral environment compared with using only mechanical force to move teeth (Blechman and Smiley, 1978; Tomizuka et al.

A great advantage of magnetic force is that once the magnetic material is placed in an appropriate position, it can act without contact through an external magnetic field. However, adding force to the corresponding area is easy but control is difficult because the magnitude of the force fluctuates greatly with the distance. Hyperthermia can lead to enhancement of tissue perfusion, skeletal muscles relaxation, and tension reduction takeda pharmaceutical co ltd adr tak soft tissue (Schmidt and Simon, 2001).

In recent years, thermotherapy has also been found to have positive effects upon bone formation. They demonstrated that a heat stimulus could facilitate bone formation, and could be promising treatment for diseases related to bone defects (Ota et al. The main challenge of using thermotherapy against diseases is how to apply the appropriate amount of heat to the target area without interfering with other areas to prevent complications (heat has good conductivity in the human body).

In recent years, scientists have discovered that magnetic materials can be used to solve this problem. For example, Petryk et al. Using MNPs, we achieved artificial local control of temperature within selected regions. However, this approach is used mainly for the treatment of tumors and cancers, and has been less studied in bone regeneration. Moreover, magnetism and hyperthermia can be combined with phototherapy. Not only did the magnetic field produced by the MBCSs promote expression of osteoblast-specific genes and regeneration of new bone, it also improved photothermal conversion.

Tumor cells cultured on scaffolds underwent apoptosis due to temperature increases under the irradiation of a near-infrared laser. Therefore, a combination of phototherapy with magnetic materials could be used against tumor-related bone defects.

Bone regeneration, as a highly complex physiological process, has been studied widely. Several methods have been employed to enhance bone formation preclinically and clinically.



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