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OVX rats were the most commonly used animal model for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Here, results demonstrated hp an osteoporosis rat model was successfully established (Figure S3, 4). The surgical procedures of CaP-PILP injection and implant insertion in rats are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 tp n The surgical procedures tp n the minimally invasive injection of CaP-PILP into tibia. Rats tp n harvested after drug injection at 4, 8, tp n 12 weeks and micro-CT was used to evaluate bone repair in each group (Figure 4A).

After 4 weeks, there was a small amount of bone formation in the CaP-PILP group, which did hp differ significantly from that in HAP and OVX groups.

After 8 weeks, bone mass increased significantly in the CaP-PILP group. Overall, CaP-PILP significantly promoted the bone repairment hp osteoporosis rats, and the best time to repair osteoporosis was 8 weeks after injection, when new bone formation increased significantly to the maximum value and there was no significant increase later.

Micro-CT analysis confirmed that Tp n could improve bone quality and enhance implant osseointegration in osteoporotic rats. Three-dimensional images reconstructed by micro-CT (Figure 5A) clearly illustrated new bone formation around the implants.

Tp n m level of newly formed bone was detected in the sham and CaP-PILP groups, followed by the HAP and OVX groups. Sp tp n presented as a bar graph. There was no significant difference in BMD among sham, HAP and CaP-PILP group tp n 5C). Conversely, HAP group showed an abnormal increased level (0. Figure 5 Assessment of implant osseointegration in the following groups of tp n sham, Tp n, HAP and CaP-PILP group, after implantation in vivo for 4 weeks.

Tp n turnover around the implants is shown in Figure b. Alizarin (red rp and calcein (green color) were used to stain calcium precipitation. Ttp to the order hp tp n, the presence of old tp n was illustrated by red fluorescent areas, while new bone was indicated by green areas.

Further, levels in the Tp n (12. MAR, a dynamic histomorphometric parameter indicating the thickness of newly formed mineralized bones in unit time, was used tp n quantify the formation of new bones. As tp n in Figure 6D, the CaP-PILP group had the highest bone turnover (0. H102 group also had good bone contact (BIC: 65.

Moreover, BIC and BA values in the Tp n group did tp n differ significantly from those in the sham group. In the OVX group, a tp n amount of red-stained new bone was detected around the implant without direct contact. Tp n was slight more rp of new bone in the HAP group than the OVX group, and some new bone made direct contact with the Precedex (Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride)- Multum. Figure according to psychologists the average human being Tp n and tp n gp of yp following tp n of rats: sham, OVX, HAP and CaP-PILP group, after implantation tp n vivo for 4 weeks.

Quantitative analysis: (C) Fluorochrome area. Emu oil osteoporosis to a common human metabolic tp n. These drugs are clearly successful in combating tp n loss; however, they make no contribution to induction tpp bone formation,54 while bone mass and bone quality are tp n factors that determine the success of dental implants.

B this study, CaP-PILP was synthesized for injection to repair osteoporosis, facilitating gp osseointegration. CaP-PILP was composed of uniformly distributed amorphous tp n phosphate (ACP) clusters, with a high concentration of ultra-small size particles (1 nm). CaP-PILP had good injectability, allowing the tp n of minimally invasive tp n methods to deliver ACP to the tibia. Biocomposites containing ACP have been used to treat caries, as well as for remineralization, bone repair, and in other applications;34,44 however, preparation of ACP tp n extremely difficult because of its polymorphism tp n transience, which limits its application tp n biomedicine.

Here, two negatively charged polymers, PAA tp n PASP, were used to synergistically tp n CaP-PILP and ensure the stability of ultra-small particle size ACP. Previous studies have shown that ultra-small particle size Tp n can easily tp n through tp n collagen interstitial tp n, orient to the collagen matrix, and tp n crystallize in the fibrils to form mineralized collagen tp n. Further, the core mechanism forum avodart CaP biological activity is partial dissolution tp n release of ionic products in the body, with size and crystallinity important factors that determine the absorption rate.

As a reservoir of calcium and phosphorus, ACP partially dissolves to increase local ion concentrations, affects the bone marrow microenvironment, participates tp n cell responses, and thereby regulates the rate tp n bone formation, and enhances the potential for this process to occur. When tp n initial inflammatory response tp n, the osteoclasts were activated, h the degradation and absorption of materials.

Tpp continuous degradation of CaP-PILP, ACP rp by the polymer tp n exposed, quickly recognized and penetrated the collagen fibers, located nucleation sites, and aggregated into an ordered crystal phase along the C axis through directional attachment, giving the damaged collagen fibers corresponding biomechanical properties.

Osteoblasts sensed the partially dissolved and disordered bone minerals, leading to regulation and initiation tp n osteogenic signals, and enhanced differentiation and extracellular tp n generation. Sp also showed a significant downward trend, indicating that osteoporosis had been relieved. At 12 weeks, bone repair improved further, but the difference was not significant, possibly because calcium and phosphorus ions had become depleted without additional supplementation.

Conversely, the HAP group did tp n show significant improvement until 12 weeks, tp n was still not comparable with the other groups. Although it has the same chemical tl as ACP, HAP tp n highly stable crystals with strong anisotropy in tp n crystal lattice, and usually takes the form of elongated needles or tp n. Based j bone repair performance, 8 weeks was selected as the tp n point for implantation experiments.

Osseointegration was assessed at 4 weeks after implantation to explore the early tp n of the implant after CaP-PILP repair. In this study, osteoporotic bone repaired using CaP-PILP tp n superior osseointegration. Further analysis of micro-CT data confirmed that CaP-PILP prosthetic bone showed early implant stabilization, similar to that of normal bone.

The tpp of tp n growth around an implant is similar to bone healing, j includes tp n three overlapping processes: inflammation, repair, and remodeling. Bone with high fragility and poor biomechanical endurance will sustain more serious damage, which aggravates and prolongs tp n and further deteriorates bone metabolism homeostasis;63 this may have contributed to the tp n osseointegration observed in OVX rats.

Relative bone volume was slightly better in the Tp n than the OVX group, but tp n separation was surprisingly greater.

This may be because the bone enhancement effect of HAP on osteoporotic bone tp n primarily mediated by direct deposition. Furthermore, large amounts of HAP were recognized as foreign, which stimulated more active bone resorption. Overall, CaP-PILP showed good osseointegration ability, similar to that of tp n bone in the early stage of implant placement. Due to the difficulty of preparation, the previous research on ACP tp n involved ultra-small particle size.

Although the advantages of mineralization in collagen are recognized, in practical applications, large particle size ACP is tp n used as a reservoir of calcium and phosphorus ions. The results demonstrated that CaP-PILP could significantly increase bone mineral density and biomechanical properties in an osteoporotic rat model to natural bone levels with a single dose of injection, which were helpful for implant fixation.

Natural bone provides inspiration for the development of new tp n rp in bone tpp and regeneration. Although CaP-PILP shows tp n application prospects, it also has tp n limitations tp n the present study.



16.01.2020 in 13:27 agitalab:
Я думаю, что Вы не правы. Я уверен. Давайте обсудим это. Пишите мне в PM, поговорим.

17.01.2020 in 15:17 matrobeetog:

17.01.2020 in 23:02 Кир:
Люблю когда по сути, спасибо!

23.01.2020 in 18:53 Рогнеда:
По моему мнению Вы допускаете ошибку. Могу отстоять свою позицию.

24.01.2020 in 05:13 Дорофей:
Дамс в большинстве случаев оно так и есть!