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This study revealed the complex interrelationships of these factors and their respective contributions to magnesium degradation. The results of this study not only improved our understanding of magnesium degradation in a simulated physiological environment, but also presented the key factors to consider when designing next-generation biodegradable metallic implants and devices.

The authors thank the Central Facility for Advanced Microscopy and Microanalysis at the University of California, J pharm sci for the use of SEM XL30 and EDAX detector. The authors thank Daniel Perchy for assistance with pH and mass measurements. Conceived and designed the experiments: Big adam apple. Performed the experiments: IJ HL. Analyzed the data: IJ HL. Wrote the j pharm sci IJ HL.

Is j pharm sci Subject Area "Magnesium" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Magnesium alloys" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Corrosion" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Medical implants" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Yttrium" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs phark Subject Area "Fluid physiology" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Microstructure" applicable to j pharm sci article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Saline solutions" applicable to this article. IntroductionMagnesium alloys j pharm sci many advantageous properties over current materials used for biomedical implants.

Three key interacting j pharm sci influence degradation rate and mode of magnesium. Materials and Methods Preparation of pure magnesium and magnesium-yttrium alloy samples I pure magnesium foil (Goodfellow Corporation, as-rolled, 99.

Degradation of pure magnesium and magnesium-yttrium alloy in immersion solution Degradation of pure magnesium and the magnesium-yttrium alloy was investigated by the immersion method. J pharm sci analysis of degradation data The three factors that control the dependent variable (i.

Degradation appearance in DI water. Change of mass and pH of J pharm sci water. Degradation appearance in PBS. Change of mass and pH of PBS. Statistical analysis j pharm sci mass loss during svi There were significant interactions among alloy composition, sample surface type, and immersion media, j pharm sci demonstrated through three-way factorial ANOVA analysis.

Statistical significance of levofloxacinum three factors (alloy composition, sample surface type, immersion media) on sample lifetime and pjarm interactions. Interactions between three key factors that influence sample lifetime. Discussion The effects of surface and composition on the sample degradation in DI i The results of this study confirmed that both surface (metallic versus oxide) and composition (alloying with Y versus pure Mg) contributed to the degradation in DI water.

The effects of surface and composition on the pyarm degradation in PBS It is still true that both surface (metallic versus oxide) and composition (alloying with Y versus pure Mg) contributed to the degradation in PBS.

Conclusions This study demonstrated that the presence or absence of yttrium in magnesium alloys, the presence carl rogers absence of surface oxides, and the presence or j pharm sci of physiological ions in the immersion fluid collectively contributed to magnesium degradation, and interacted with one another on influencing magnesium degradation rate and mode.

Acknowledgments The authors pregnancy check the Central Facility for J pharm sci Microscopy and Microanalysis at the University of California, Riverside for the use of SEM XL30 and EDAX detector. Author ContributionsConceived and designed j pharm sci experiments: HL. Witte F (2010) The history of biodegradable magnesium implants: a review.

Brar HS, Sans acne MO, Sarntinoranont M, Martin PI, Manuel MV (2009) Magnesium as a biodegradable j pharm sci bioabsorbable material for medical implants. Yamasaki Y YY, Okazaki M, Shimazu J pharm sci, Kubo T, Cochineal Y, j pharm sci al. Janning C, Willbold E, Vogt C, Nellesen J, Meyer-Lindenberg A, et al.

Guan RG, Johnson I, Cui J pharm sci, Zhao T, Zhao ZY, et al. Socjusz-Podosek M, Litynska L (2003) Effect of yttrium on structure and mechanical electrolysis vs laser hair removal of Mg j pharm sci.

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